The Water Footprint of Export Apples from New Zealand

This project is in the final stages of completion. It is funded by Pipfruit NZ
Plant & Food Research, Fruition Horticulture

A hydrologically rational approach, based on our SPASMO model, is being used in an LCA context to quantify the water footprint of export apples grown across 3 regions of New Zealand, considering more 5 local soil types per region and climates from NIWA’s virtual climate station network. The functional unit is a kilogram of apples at the coolstore gate.


  • To quantify the water footprint of 1 kg of Class I Royal Gala apples at the coolstore gate, packed in cartons and ready for export (Pipfruit NZ funding)
  • To develop a decision support tool (DST) for growers to assess and reduce the water footprint of their apples (Plant & Food core-funding)